EXAMINE POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADULT AND TEEN ADDICTIVE RELAPSE.The two types of TB are pulmonary and extrapulmonary, but the former that is more common.

EXAMINE POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADULT AND TEEN ADDICTIVE RELAPSE.The two types of TB are pulmonary and extrapulmonary, but the former that is more common.

Problem Statement Tuberculosis is an infection in humans that is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmitted through the exchange of air from an infected individual through sneezing, coughing, shouting, and singing (Bynum, 2012). The two types of TB are pulmonary and extrapulmonary, but the former that is more common. Few infectious diseases are as deadly as TB. According to Lawn and Zumla (2011), Tuberculosis accounted for about 25% of all deaths in Europe during the 19th century. Even though the situation has improved with better housing and proper sanitation, the mortality rate for TB is still almost the same as it was a century ago (50% of those infected; World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). In 2013, approximately nine million people contracted TB, and about 1.5 million died due to the disease (WHO, 2014). Little knowledge exists about the factors that contribute the prevalence of the TB rate in 2009 -2010 in the capital of Monrovia (Corbett, E.L., et al. (2000) . Patients who visited and tested positive at the TB Annex hospital in Monrovia age range between, 7-12 years (90.91%), 13 – 18 years (88.57), 19 -24 years (90.57), 19 – 24 years (90. 57%), and 31 above age was the highest (91.27 % ) sputum positive. (Corbett, E.L., et al. (2000)

©2010 Walden University Writing Center Table 1 Review of Literature Author/ Date Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework Research Question(s)/ Hypotheses Methodology Analysis & Results Conclusions Implications for Future research Implications For practice Maisto Pollock Lynch Martin Ammerman (2001) Coping factors in relationship to decreasing substance abuse with adolescents one year post drug treatment What factors contribute to the variability in adolescent functioning regarding substance abuse one-year post treatment? Quasi-experimental design involving 166 subjects in Pittsburgh adolescent research center. Initial baseline assessment and 1 year later. Pre and posttest measures included ACQ, ISE, CTI, LEQA, SCQ, and DUSI. First set of analysis involved one-way ANOVA. Four independent t-tests conducted to determine specific group differences. The final set utilized ANOVA with repeated measures 1 year later. 36% of subjects discontinued alcohol use. All clinical groups demonstrated improvement at one year. Stress and coping model useful for examining clinical course of alcohol use disorders in adolescents. Differences between participants at baseline regarding coping factors indicate significance of acquisition of such skills as part of treatment intervention. De Anda Bradley (1997) Stress, stressors, and coping strategies among middle school adolescents Adolescents’ perceptions of their stress use of coping strategies and the adolescents’ evaluation of degree of success regarding 54 middle school students 12-14 years old completed ASCM and STAI. A four point Likert scale was used for analysis. Internal consistency was .95. Results indicated female students report increased degree of stress. School related stressors rated highest thus schools are a good place for intervention/preventi on. Gender differences need to be considered. Gender and developmental differences in coping need to be examined. Adolescents might be amenable to treatment which teaches positive coping strategies, schools can help with this process ©2010 Walden University Writing Center Author/ Date Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework Research Question(s)/ Hypotheses Methodology Analysis & Results Conclusions Implications for Future research Implications For practice Longabaugh Morgenstern (1999) Examined current status of cognitivebehavioral coping skills treatment in relation to alcohol treatment. Does CBST differ in effectiveness for different kinds of patients during different treatment phases or potential relapse situations? Are certain CBST approaches superior to others? Reviewed 9 wellcontrolled studies where patients voluntarily entered treatment. Examined studies that attempted to identify the variables responsible for CBST effectiveness. Randomized clinical trials where the participants received CBST. Studies measured and analyzed potential mediators for CBST effectiveness. CBST associated with decrease in alcohol abuse, but revealed no conclusions for the active mechanisms of CBST. CBST is more effective than other approaches only when used as an adjunct to treatment, not on its own. Underlying mechanisms still unknown for CBST. Limited effectiveness predicting efficacy of CBST differs among various patient subtypes. Need more studies and stronger evidence to support hypothesis. Combine CBST with ongoing treatment such as motivational interviewing, self-help groups (i.e. AA), or medication. Myers Brown (1996) Psychometric validation of the Adolescent Relapse Coping Questionnaire (ARCQ) -What is the evidence to support psychometric validity of the ARCQ? -Examine temptation coping construct Examine possible differences between adult and teen addictive relapse. Prospective longitudinal study using 136 substanceabusing adolescents. ARCQ administered. Subjects interviewed one year and two years post treatment. Results indicated 3 coping factors that were evaluated for criterion and construct validity. Factors demonstrated good internal consistency. Analysis provides support for psychometric validity of ARCQ; validate use of temptation coping construct and differences between adults and teens. Consider developmental aspects of client. Further assessment needed of actual coping in relapse risk situations. Address differences such as – shorter history of substance abuse -less developed coping skills – teens encounter different relapse situations. Author/ Date Theoretical/ Conceptual Research Question(s)/ Methodology Analysis & Results Conclusions Implications for Implications For practice ©2010 Walden University Writing Center Framework Hypotheses Future research Brown Myers Mott (1993) Increased problemfocused and social support coping predict better outcome six months after adolescent substance abuse treatment. Coping skills for relapse risk situations including problemfocused, selfblame, socialsupport and wishful thinking strategies assessed during treatment predict 6-month outcome for adolescents. 57 substanceabusing adolescents admitted to in patient drug treatment. Completed 90 minute structured interview, ARCQ, and self report analysis. Multiple regression analysis indicated factors accounted for significant difference in the prediction of a composite measure of treatment outcome and also predicted variables regarding total length of abstinence. There are differences between adolescent and adult cognitive coping styles. Social support may also be useful. Investigate intervention effects directed toward altering teens approach to coping. Investigate assessment with behavioral physiological measures. Increased emphasis on cognitive vigilance, styles of cognitive coping, and develops skills for obtaining social support. Myers Brown (1990) Adolescents who relapse appraise hypothetical high -risk situations as more stressful, and utilize few coping strategies in comparison with teens who successfully abstained. Individuals who relapsed will appraise relapse situations as more stressful, and utilize fewer coping strategies. Pre and posttest using ARCQ was administered to 50 inpatient adolescents in substance abuse treatment. Two MANOVAS were employed. One assessed hypothetical relapse and indicated a significant group effect. Second analysis revealed significant differences between groups regarding problem focused coping skills. In hypothetical highrisk situations, abstainers and minor relapsers used more problem-focused coping, and appraised the situation as more difficult than major relapsers. Future studies should investigate differences between coping strategies employed, and whether they existed during treatment or developed through experience post treatment. Clinicians need to conduct assessment and instruction of problem focused strategies. I


 

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